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Molecular networks underlying myofibroblast fate and fibrosis

Fibrotic remodeling is a hallmark of most forms of cardiovascular disease and a strong prognostic indicator of the advancement towards heart failure. Myofibroblasts, which are a heterogeneous cell-type specialized for extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and tissue contraction, are the primary effectors of the heart’s fibrotic response. This review is focused on defining myofibroblast physiology, its progenitor cell populations, and the core signaling network that orchestrates myofibroblast differentiation as a way of understanding the basic determinants of fibrotic disease in the heart and other tissues.

April Stempien-Otero, Deok-Ho Kim and Jennifer Davis
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 2016-08-01, Volume 97, Pages 153-161, Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Association between air pollution and coronary artery calcification within six metropolitan areas in the USA (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution): a longitudinal cohort study

Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter less than 2·5 μm in diameter (PM 2·5 ) and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations are associated with cardiovascular risk. The disease process underlying these associations remains uncertain. We aim to assess association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and progression of coronary artery calcium and common carotid artery intima-media thickness.

Joel D Kaufman Prof, Sara D Adar ScD, R Graham Barr MD, Matthew Budoff Prof, Gregory L Burke Prof, Cynthia L Curl PhD, Martha L Daviglus Prof, Ana V Diez Roux Prof, Amanda J Gassett MS, David R Jacobs Prof, Richard Kronmal Prof, Timothy V Larson Prof, Ana Navas-Acien MD, Casey Olives PhD, Paul D Sampson Prof, Lianne Sheppard Prof, David S Siscovick Prof Emeritus, James H Stein Prof, Adam A Szpiro PhD and Karol E Watson Prof
Lancet, The, 2016-08-13, Volume 388, Issue 10045, Pages 696-704, Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Cost Implications of Using Different ECG Criteria for Screening Young Athletes in the United Kingdom

High false-positive rates and cost of additional investigations are an obstacle to electrocardiographic (ECG) screening of young athletes for cardiac disease. However, ECG screening costs have never been systematically assessed in a large cohort of athletes.

Harshil Dhutia MBBS, BSc, Aneil Malhotra MBBChir, MA, MSc, Vincent Gabus MD, Ahmed Merghani MBBS, BmedSci, Gherardo Finocchiaro MD, Lynne Millar MBBS, Rajay Narain MBBS, Michael Papadakis MD, MBBS, Huseyin Naci PhD, Maite Tome MD, PhD and Sanjay Sharma MD, MBChB, BSc
JACC (Journal of the American College of Cardiology), 2016-08-16, Volume 68, Issue 7, Pages 702-711, Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation

The role of levosimendan in acute heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome: A review and expert consensus opinion

Acute heart failure and/or cardiogenic shock are frequently triggered by ischemic coronary events. Yet, there is a paucity of randomized data on the management of patients with heart failure complicating acute coronary syndrome, as acute coronary syndrome and cardiogenic shock have frequently been defined as exclusion criteria in trials and registries. As a consequence, guideline recommendations are mostly driven by observational studies, even though these patients have a particularly poor prognosis compared to heart failure patients without signs of coronary artery disease.

Markku S. Nieminen, Michael Buerke, Alain Cohen-Solál, Susana Costa, István Édes, Alexey Erlikh, Fatima Franco, Charles Gibson, Vojka Gorjup, Fabio Guarracino, Finn Gustafsson, Veli-Pekka Harjola, Trygve Husebye, Kristjan Karason, Igor Katsytadze, Sundeep Kaul, Matti Kivikko, Giancarlo Marenzi, Josep Masip, Simon Matskeplishvili, Alexandre Mebazaa, Jacob E. Møller, Jadwiga Nessler, Bohdan Nessler, Argyrios Ntalianis, Fabrizio Oliva, Emel Pichler-Cetin, Pentti Põder, Alejandro Recio-Mayoral, Steffen Rex, Richard Rokyta, Ruth H. Strasser, Endre Zima and Piero Pollesello
International Journal of Cardiology, 2016-09-01, Volume 218, Pages 150-157, Copyright © 2016 The Authors

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance to Evaluate Aortic Regurgitation After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

Residual aortic regurgitation (AR) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with greater mortality; yet, determining AR severity post-TAVR using Doppler echocardiography remains challenging. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is purported as a more accurate means of quantifying AR; however, no data exist regarding the prognostic value of AR as assessed by CMR post-TAVR.

Henrique B. Ribeiro MD, PhD, Stefan Orwat MD, Salim S. Hayek MD, Éric Larose MD, Vasilis Babaliaros MD, Abdellaziz Dahou MD, Florent Le Ven MD, Sergio Pasian MD, Rishi Puri MBBS, PhD, Omar Abdul-Jawad Altisent MD, Francisco Campelo-Parada MD, Marie-Annick Clavel PhD, Philippe Pibarot DVM, PhD, Stamatios Lerakis MD, Helmut Baumgartner MD and Josep Rodés-Cabau MD
JACC (Journal of the American College of Cardiology), 2016-08-09, Volume 68, Issue 6, Pages 577-585, Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation

Effect of suboptimal anticoagulation treatment with antiplatelet therapy and warfarin on clinical outcomes in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: A population-wide cohort study

The actual consequence of suboptimal anticoagulation management in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is unclear in the real-life practice.

Esther W. Chan PhD, Wallis C.Y. Lau BSc, Chung Wah Siu MD, Gregory Y.H. Lip MD, Wai K. Leung MD, Shweta Anand BDS, Kenneth K.C. Man MPH and Ian C.K. Wong PhD
Heart Rhythm, 2016-08-01, Volume 13, Issue 8, Pages 1581-1588, Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society

Left atrial appendage morphology assessment for risk stratification of embolic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis

Thromboembolic event (TE) risk stratification is performed by using CHA 2 DS 2 VASc score. It has been suggested that left atrial appendage (LAA) morphology independently influences TE risk in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. LAA morphology has been classified into 4 types: chicken wing, cauliflower, windsock, and cactus.

Florentino Lupercio MD, Juan Carlos Ruiz MD, David F. Briceno MD, Jorge Romero MD, Pedro A. Villablanca MD, Cecilia Berardi MD, Robert Faillace MD, Andrew Krumerman MD, John D. Fisher MD, FHRS, Kevin Ferrick MD, FHRS, Mario Garcia MD, Andrea Natale MD, FHRS and Luigi Di Biase MD, PhD, FHRS

Heart Rhythm, 2016-07-01, Volume 13, Issue 7, Pages 1402-1409, Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society

Associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a pooled analysis of data from four studies

Several studies reported a U-shaped association between urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Whether these associations vary between those individuals with and without hypertension is uncertain. We aimed to explore whether the association between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality is modified by hypertension status.

Lancet, The, Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update on New Pharmacological Therapy for Heart Failure: An Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure

Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Butler J, Casey Jr DE, Colvin MM, Drazner
MH, Filippatos G, Fonarow GC, Givertz MM, Hollenberg SM, Lindenfeld J, Masoudi FA, McBride
PE, Peterson PN, Stevenson LW, Westlake C, 2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update on New
Pharmacological Therapy for Heart Failure: An Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the
Management of Heart Failure, Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2016), doi: 10.1016/
j.jacc.2016.05.011.

DAPT Score Utility for Risk Prediction in Patients With or Without Previous Myocardial Infarction

The DAPT (Dual Antiplatelet Therapy) study enrolled patients after coronary stenting. Patients randomized to continued thienopyridine and aspirin after 12 months had lower ischemic risk but higher bleeding risk than those treated with placebo and aspirin.

JACC (Journal of the American College of Cardiology), 2016-05-31, Volume 67, Issue 21, Pages 2492-2502, Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation

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